Before Learning any Platform we need to know the basic terminology,
Understanding Terminologies will be helpful to learn the technology easily,.
Refers to the structuring of web content in such a way that it is easily accessible to all users, in particular users with disabilities.
The text a link uses to refer to your site. This can make a big difference in your siteís search engine results
this convenient tool allows users to move data up and down the computer screen.
this part of a program is located at the bottom-most part of its interface, and it usually displays small messages that indicate the progress of a command or task. If programmed incorrectly, an application might display the wrong information in this area.
The back end of a website is the part hidden from view of regular website visitors. The back end generally includes the information structure, applications, and the CMS controlling content on the site.
Backlinks are links from other sites back to your own. Theyíre sometimes also referred to as ìtrackbacksî (especially on blogs). Backlinks have a huge impact on your sites search rankings. Lots of backlinks from high-ranking sites can greatly improve your search engine results, especially if those links use keywords in their anchor text.
Bandwidth can refer to two different things: the rate at which data can be transferred or the total amount of data allowed to be transferred from a web host during a given month (or other hosting service term) before overage charges are applied. It is generally referred to in term of bits-per-second (bps), kilobits per second (kbs), or other metric measurements. Lower bandwidth internet connections (such as dial-up) mean data loads slower than with high bandwidth connections (like cable or fiber).
A websiteís bounce rate is the percentage of people who leave the site from the same page they entered the site, without clicking through to any other pages. This can be a good indicator of how good a websiteís navigation is, as well as an indicator of the quality of the siteís content (a very high bounce rate doesnít bode well for either of those things).
Breadcrumbs are the bit of navigation elements that generally appear near the top of a give web page that show you the pages and subpages the appear before the page youíre on. For examples, on a blog, the breadcrumbs might look something like: Home > Category > Year > Month > Post (or they might be a lot simpler that that).
Browser refers to the program a website visitor is using to view the web site. Examples include Safari, Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, and Internet Explorer.
CACHE / CACHING
Cached files are those that are saved or copied (downloaded) by a web browser so that the next time that user visits the site, the page loads faster.
Client-side refers to scripts that are run in a viewerís browser, instead of on a web server (as in server-side scripts). Client-side scripts are generally faster to interact with, though they can take longer to load initially.
CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Also known as a CMS, the Content Management System is a backend tool for managing a siteís content that separates said content from the design and functionality of the site. Using a CMS generally makes it easier to change the design or function of a site independent of the siteís content. It also (usually) makes it easier for content to be added to the site for people who arenít designers.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) is a style sheet language that determines the look of elements on a web page. Web sites can be built without CSS (it came many years after HTML), but CSS gives the web designer more power to control how the content is displayed. The main benefit of CSS is that it splits the content from the presentation. Site-wide style changes can be performed by editing the style sheet rather than every page individually.
A CSS framework is a collection of CSS files used as the starting point to make XHTML and CSS web sites quickly and painlessly. They usually contain CSS styles for typography and layout.
Depricated tags, elements or attributes are ones that have become obsolete or they have been replaced by newer versions. Continuing to use a depricated tag/element/attribute might seem to work fine, but it will eventually stop working as newer web browsers stop supporting it.Deprecated code is code that is no longer included in the language specifications. Generally this happens because it is replaced with more accessible or efficient alternatives.
Stands for Domain Name Service (alternately Domain Name System or Domain Name Server). Basically, itís the thing that converts IP addresses into domain names. DNS servers are provided with the IP address of your web server when you assign your domain name to those servers. In turn, when someone types your domain name into their web browser, those DNS servers translate the domain name to the IP address and point the browser to the correct web server.
The doctype declaration specifies which version of HTML is used in a document. It has a direct effect on whether your HTML will validate.
Stands for Document Object Model. Itís a language-indpendent, cross-platform convention for representing objects in XML, XHTML, and HTML documents.
The domain is the name by which a website is identified. The domain is associated with an IP address. Domains can be purchased with any combination of letters, hyphens (-), and numbers (though it canít start with a hyphen). Depending on the extension (.com, .net, .org, etc.), a domain can be anywhere up to 26 to 63 characters long.
Stands for Document Type Definition. DTD is one of several SGML and XML schema languages. It provides a list of the attributes, comments, elements, entities, and notes in a document along with their relationships to each other.
Short for electronic commerce. Itís the buying and selling of goods online, through websites. Products sold through e-commerce can be physical products that require shipping, or digital products delivered electronically.
An elastic layout is one that uses percentages and ems for widths paired with a max-width style to allow the site layout to stretch when font sizes are changed. Itís ability to flex to accommodate the browser width and readerís font preferences are where it gets its name.
In XML, an element is the central building block of any document. Individual elements can contain text, other elements, or both.
An embedded style is a CSS style written into the head of an XHTML document. It only effects the elements on that page, instead of site-wide as a separate CSS file does. Style in an embedded style sheet will override styles from the linked CSS file.
EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE
Otherwise known as XML. XML is a markup language used for writing custom markup languages. In other words, XML describes how to write new languages (itís sometimes referred to as a ìmetaî language because of this). It also serves as a basic syntax that allows different kinds of computers and applications to share information without having to go through multiple conversion layers.
EXTERNAL STYLE SHEET
This is a CSS document that is written in a separate, external document. The biggest advantage to using an external style sheet is that it can be linked to by multiple HTML/XHTML files (which means changes made to the style sheet will effect all the pages linked to it without having to change each page individually).
Favicons are tiny (generally 16◊16 pixels, though some are 32◊32 pixels), customizable icons displayed in the web address bar in most browsers next to the web address. Theyíre either 8-bit or 24-bit in color depth and are saved in either .ico, .gif or .png file formats.
FIXED WIDTH LAYOUT
A fixed width layout has a set width (generally defined in pixels) set by the designer. The width stays the same regardless of screen resolution, monitor size, or browser window size. It allows for minute adjustments to be made to a design that will stay consistent across browsers. Designers have more control over exactly how a site will appear across platforms with this type of layout.
Font family is a group designation for defining the typefaces used in CSS documents. The font family tag generally lists multiple fonts to be used, and usually ends with the generic font category (such as ìserifî or ìsans-serifí).
In CSS, the font style refers solely to whether a font is italic or not.
The font weight refers to how thick or thin (bold or light) a font looks.
The front-end is basically the opposite of the back-end. Itís all the components of a website that a visitor to the site can see (pages, images, content, etc.) Specifically, itís the interface that visitors use to access the siteís content. Itís also sometimes referred to as the User Interface.
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
Also referred to by its acronym: GUI. A graphical user interface uses an input device (like the mouse) and visual representations of how the user is able to interact with a web application. In other words, itís all the front-end stuff you see on a web application. Itís purpose is to allow you to interact with a web application without having to enter code.
Also referred to a ìhexî numbers, they are a base-16 numbering system used to define colors online. Hex numbers include the numerals 0-9 and letters A-F. Hexadecimal numbers are written in three sets of hex pairs. Because screen colors are RGB (Red, Green, Blue), the first pair defines the red hue, the second pair defines the green hue, and the third pair defines the blue.
The .htaccess file is the default directory-level configuration file on Apache servers. They are also known as ìdistributed configuration files.î Configuration directives contained in the .htaccess file apply to the directory in which the file is placed as well as all of its subdirectories. Within the .htaccess file things like authorization and authentication, rewriting of URLs, cache control and customized error responses can all be specified.
Stands for Hypertext Markup Language. Itís the primary language used to write web pages. HTML is primarily intended as a way to provide content on websites (with CSS handling the layout and stylistic options), though it can also be used to determine how that content is displayed.
Also referred to as an HTML element, an HTML tag is the bit of code that describes how that particular piece of the web page itís on is formatted. Typical tags specify things like headings, paragraphs, links, and a variety of other items.
Stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. HTTP is a set of rules for transferring hypertext requests between a web browser and a web server.
Similar to HTTP, HTTPS stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol over SSL (Secure Socket Layer) or, alternately, HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure. Like HTTP, itís a set of rules for transferring hypertext requests between browsers and servers, but this time itís done over a secure, encrypted connection.
A hyperlink is a link from one web page to another, either on the same site or another one. Generally these are text or images, and are highlighted in some way (text is often underlined or put in a different color or font weight). The inclusion of hyperlinks are the ìhyperî part of ìhypertext.î
Hypertext is any computer-based text that includes hyperlinks. Hypertext can also include presentation devices like tables or images, in addition to plain text and links.
Short for Inline Frame. An iframe is used to display one or more web pages within another normal web page (one that isnít a frameset page).
An image map is a single image on a web site where one or more area of the image has been turned into a link, as opposed to an image link where the entire image is linked.
In CSS, elements that donít have a pre-defined style will take on the style of their parent element within the document tree.
Elements with CSS written directly around the element it affects, instead of in a separate style sheet or header style.
A landing page is the page where a visitor first enters a website. Oftentimes, a special landing page is created to elicit a specific action from the new visitor (usually in connection with an advertising or marketing campaign).
A link farm is any website setup specifically to increase the link popularity of other websites by increasing the number of incoming links to that site. While some link farms are single pages listing unrelated links, others consist of networks of sites that contain multiple links back and forth to one another. Search engines can generally recognize these types of schemes and often remove link farms from their directories and penalize the sites linking to and from them.
A liquid layout is one that is based on percentages of the browser windowís size. The layout of the site will change with the width of the browser, even if the visitor changes their browser size while viewing the page. Liquid layouts take full advantage of a personís browser width, optimizing the amount of content you can fit onscreen at one time.
This refers to the coding applied to a text document to change it into an HTML, XML, or other Markup Language document.
Meta data is the data contained in the header that offers information about the web page that a visitor is currently on. The information contained in the meta data isnít viewable on the web page (except in the source code). Meta data is contained within meta tags.
A meta tag is an HTML tag used to include meta data within the header of your web page.
Navigation refers to the system that allows visitors to a website to move around that site. Navigation is most often thought of in terms of menus, but links within pages, breadcrumbs, related links, pagination, and any other links that allow a visitor to move from one page to another are included in navigation.
Nesting refers to putting one HTML element within another element. When this is done, the elements have to be closed in the reverse order from how they were opened.
A non-breaking space (also referred to as ) is a white-space character that isnít condensed by HTML. Itís primary function is to hold open table cells or add spacing between words (or a the beginning of paragraphs if an indent is desired).
Open source refers to the source code of a computer program being made available to the general public. Open source software includes both web-based and desktop applications. Open source programs are generally free or very low cost and are developed by teams of people, sometimes comprised mostly of volunteers.
A pageview is a request for an entire web page document from a server by a visitorís browser. In other words, for each page view your site had, someone (or a search engine spider) looked at that page.
Short for ìpermanent link.î Generally used only on blogs, a permalink is a link that is the permanent web address of a given blog post. Since most blogs have constantly-changing content, the permalink offers a way for readers to bookmark or link to specific posts even after those posts have moved off the home page or primary category page.
A plug-in is a bit of third party code that extends the capabilities of a website. Itís most often used in conjunction with a CMS or blogging platform. Plug-ins are a way to extend the functionality of a website without having to redo the core coding of the site. Plugins can also refer to bits of third-party software installed within a computer program to increase its functionality.
Progressive enhancement is a strategy for web design that uses web technologies in a layered fashion that allows everyone to access the basic content and functionality of a web page, using any browser or Internet connection, while also providing those with better bandwidth or more advanced browser software an enhanced version of the page.